Kashman, Y., Gustafson, K.R., Fuller, R.W., Cardellina, J.H., II, McMahon, J.B., Currens, M.J., Buckheit, R.W., Hughes, S.H., Cragg, G.M., Boyd, M.R.J. Med. Chem. 35: 2735-2743, 1992.
Eight new coumarin compounds (1-8) were isolated by anti-HIV bioassay-guided fractionation of an extract of Calophyllum lanigerum. The structures of calanolide A (1), 12-acetoxycalanolide A (2), 12-methoxycalanolide A (3), calanolide B (4), 12-methoxycalanolide B (5), calanolide C (6) and related derivatives 7 and 8 were solved by extensive spectroscopic analyses, particularly HMQC, HMBC, and difference NOE NMR experiments. The absolute stereochemistry of calanolide A (1) and calanolide B (4) was established by a modified Mosher's method. Calanolides A (1) and B (4) were completely protective against HIV-1 replication and cytopathicity (EC50 values of 0.1 µM and 0.4 µM, respectively), but were inactive against HIV-2. Some of the related compounds also showed evidence of anti-HIV activity. Studies with purified bacterial recombinant reverse transcriptases (RT) revealed that the calanolides are HIV-1 specific RT inhibitors. Moreover, calanolide A was active not only against the AZT-resistant G-9106 strain of HIV-1 but also against the pyridinone-resistant A17 strain. This was of particular interest since the A17 virus is highly resistant to previously known HIV-1 specific, non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (e.g., TIBO; BI-RG-587; L693,593) which comprise a structurally diverse but apparently common pharmacologic class. The calanolides represent a substantial departure from the known class and therefore provide a novel new anti-HIV chemotype for drug development.
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